Abstract #M107

# M107
Effect of hydrodynamic cavitation on acid gelation properties of skim milk.
Harsh Dahiya*1, Hasmukh A. Patel1, Thom Huppertz1,2, 1South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 2NIZO Food Research, Ede, the Netherlands.

Acid gelation is an important property of milk with relevance to yogurt manufacturing. Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) is an emerging technology involving a process of vaporization, bubble generation followed by bubble collapse in a flowing liquid brought about by a decrease in pressure followed by a subsequent increase in pressure. In this study, we compared the effects of HC with conventional heat treatments used in dairy industry on acid gelation property of skim milk. Pasteurized skim milk (3.5% protein and 9% total solids) was preheated to 50°C and then subjected to 2 sets of HC treatments, namely, HC at 20, 40, and 60 Hz at sufficiently high flow rate (950 L/h) to avoid any temperature increase during HC (T1) and HC at 60 Hz at low flow rates (200 L/h) to allow scale-free heating of skim milk increasing its temperature to desired temperature up to 90°C (T2) using APV Cavitator (supplied by SPX, Denmark) fitted with 4-row rotor in 6mm housing. A portion of skim milk was also heated at 90°C for 10 min. Acid milk gels were prepared from untreated (control), skim milk samples obtained from T1, T2 as well as the skim milk samples conventionally heated to 90°C for 10 min using glucono-δ-lactone to obtain final pH4.6 ± 0.05 after 4h incubation at 30°C. Rheological characteristics of acid gels were studied using small amplitude oscillatory rheology (SAOR) at 1% strain and 0.1 Hz frequency. The soluble (serum) phases obtained by centrifugation of control, cavitated and heated milk samples at 25000g/1h were characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE (SDS-PAGE). It was observed that the storage modulus (G′) of acid gels prepared with skim milk samples subjected to T1 was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those prepared with samples subjected to T2. Acid gels prepared from the samples subjected to T2 with temperatures reaching 90°C had highest final G′, which was attributed to significant denaturation of whey proteins in these samples. It was also observed that this value of G′ was similar to the one obtained from the conventional heating of milk, suggesting that the cavitation treatment of milk do not adversely affect the acid gelation property of the milk.

Key Words: acid gel, cavitation, rheology