Abstract #73

# 73
The effect of spray-drying parameters on the flavor of skim milk powder.
C. W. Park*1, M. A. Stout1, M. A. Drake1, 1Southeast Dairy Foods Research Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

Unit operations during production influence the sensory properties of skim milk powder (SMP). Off-flavors associated with SMP decrease consumer acceptance of ingredient applications. Previous work has shown that spray drying parameters such as inlet temperature and feed solids concentration affect physical and sensory properties of whole milk powder and whey protein concentrate. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inlet temperature and feed solids concentration on the flavor of SMP. Pasteurized skim milk was evaporated to 50% total solids by a falling film evaporator. The condensed milk was then spray dried at either 160, 210, or 260°C inlet temperature and either 30, 40, or 50% total solids in a randomized order. Warm deionized water was added to achieve 30 and 40% solids condensed milk. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Flavor of the SMP was evaluated by sensory and instrumental analyses, which included descriptive analysis and solvent extraction with solvent-assisted flavor evaporation followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Surface free fat and particle size were also analyzed. Both main effects (30, 40, 50% solids and 160, 210, and 260°C inlet temperature) and interactions between solids concentration and inlet temperature were investigated. Interaction effects were not significant (P > 0.05). Decreasing inlet temperature decreased overall aroma, sweet aromatic and cooked flavors, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and furaneol concentrations and increased cardboard flavor and hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, furfuryl alcohol, and 2,4-decadienal concentrations (P < 0.05). Increasing solids concentration increased sweet aromatic flavor and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline concentration, while 30% solids concentration increased cardboard flavor and hexanal, nonanal, DMTS, and furfuryl alcohol concentrations compared with 40 or 50% solids (P < 0.05). Particle size increased and surface free fat decreased with increasing inlet temperature and solids concentration (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that increasing inlet temperatures and solids concentration during spray drying decrease off-flavor intensities in SMP.

Key Words: skim milk powder, spray drying, flavor